Introduction to Autonomous Vehicle
I. Six levels of Autonomous Vehicle
There are 6 levels of Autonomous Vehicle:
- Level 0: No Automation: Driver has to control all the system on their own and receive no support from the system
- Level 1: Driver Assistance: Driver receives assist from either steering or acceleration/deceleration using the information from about the driving environment.
- Level 2: Partial Automation: Both steering and acceleration/deceleration will be controlled by the system. Driver still has to perform all remaining aspects of the driving task.
- Level 3: Conditional Automation: Automated driving system can now perform all aspects of the driving task but still need the control from the driver when needed.
- Level 4: High Automation: Performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a system request or warning for human intervention. (deliver the capability in a defined area/geofenced area and weather constraints).
- Level 5: Full Automation: The full performance of driving by an automated driving system under all roadway and environmental conditions that can also be managed by a human driver, but human intervention is not needed (unrestricted area and weather).
II. Some examples:
- A product from the Google Self Driving project.
- Was aimed to create a safer, easier and faster solution for people and things to move around.
- There is already the early access rider program in 2017.
2. Tesla Model S:
- Has all the hardware needed for full-self driving capability at a safety level greater than a human driver
- Has eight cameras provide 360 degrees of visibility around the car at up to 250 meters of range.
- Twelve updated ultrasonic sensors complement this vision, allowing for detection of both hard and soft objects at nearly twice the distance of the prior system.
- A forward-facing radar with enhanced processing provides additional data about the world on a redundant wavelength that is able to see through heavy rain, fog, dust and even the car ahead.
- Equipped with a new processor which is 40 times faster than a normal computer.
- Many more features...
- They want to sell this car all over the world.
Both Waymo and Tesla Model S will be classified as level 5 because they are equipped with cameras, censors, provide full auto pilot feature, and can work in all roadway and environmental conditions that can be managed by a human driver without any response or request from the driver.
IV. Some applications for Autonomous Vehicle:
1. Driver has more free time:
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) can drive on their own without any request or response from the driver that makes them have more times for other important things, the result from a research provide the information that AVs could free as much as 50 minutes a day for users.
2. Parking becomes easier
AVs can go to the parking-lot automatic which is better than a driver in most cases, some self-parking AVs don't even require open-door space for dropping off passenger when parked. AVs could change the mobility behavior of consumers, potentially reducing the need for parking space in the United States by more than 5.7 billion square meters.
3. Accident rates dropBy midcentury, the penetration of AVs and other ADAS could ultimately cause vehicle crashes in the United States to fall from second to ninth place in terms of their lethality ranking among accident types. Today, car crashes have an enormous impact on the US economy. For every person killed in a motor-vehicle accident, 8 are hospitalized, and 100 are treated and released from emergency rooms. The overall annual cost of roadway crashes to the US economy was $212 billion in 2012. Taking that year as an example, advanced ADAS and AVs reducing accidents by up to 90 percent would have potentially saved about $190 billion.
- Waymo homepage: https://waymo.com/tech/
- Tesla homepage: https://www.tesla.com
- All new Teslas to ship with Level 5 autonomous driving hardware: http://www.autoblog.com/2016/10/19/tesla-level-5-autonomous-driving-hardware-standard/
- A brief history of autonomous vehicle: https://www.wired.com/brandlab/2016/03/a-brief-history-of-autonomous-vehicle-technology/
- Ten ways autonomous driving could redefine the automotive world: http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/ten-ways-autonomous-driving-could-redefine-the-automotive-world